Concept

P–n junction

Summary
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor. The "p" (positive) side contains an excess of holes, while the "n" (negative) side contains an excess of electrons in the outer shells of the electrically neutral atoms there. This allows electric current to pass through the junction only in one direction. The p- and n-type regions creating the junction are made by doping the semiconductor, for example by ion implantation, diffusion of dopants, or by epitaxy (growing a layer of crystal doped with one type of dopant on top of a layer of crystal doped with another type of dopant). p–n junctions are elementary "building blocks" of semiconductor electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and integrated circuits; they are the active sites where the electronic action of the device takes place. For example, a common type of transistor, the bipo
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