Concept# Inertial frame of reference

Summary

In classical physics and special relativity, an inertial frame of reference (also called inertial space, or Galilean reference frame) is a frame of reference not undergoing any acceleration. It is a frame in which an isolated physical object—an object with zero net force acting on it—is perceived to move with a constant velocity or, equivalently, it is a frame of reference in which Newton's first law of motion holds.
All inertial frames are in a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another; in other words, an accelerometer moving with any of them would detect zero acceleration.
It has been observed that celestial objects which are far away from other objects and which are in uniform motion with respect to the cosmic microwave background radiation maintain such uniform motion.
Measurements in one inertial frame can be converted to measurements in another by a simple transformation - the Galilean transformation in Newtonian physics and the Lorentz transformatio

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This article is part of the project to model the kinetics of high-temperature combustions, occurring behind shock waves and in detonation waves. The "conventional" semi-empirical correlations of ignition delays have been reformulated, by keeping the Arrhenius equation form. It is shown how it polynomial with 3(N) Coefficients (where N is an element of [1, 4] is the number of adjustable kinetic parameters, likely to be simultaneously chosen among the temperature T, the pressure P, the inert fraction X-Ar, and the equivalence ratio Phi) can reproduce the delays predicted by the Curran et al. [H.J. Curran, P. Gaffuri, W.J. Pitz. C.K. Westbrook, Combust. Flame 129 (2002) 253-280] detailed mechanism (565 species and 22538 reactions), over it wide range of conditions (comparable with the validity domain). The deviations between the simulated times and their fits (typically 1%) are definitely lower than the Uncertainties related to the mechanism (at least 25%). In addition. using, this new formalism to evaluate these durations is about 10(6) times faster than simulating them With SENKIN (CHEMKIN III package) and only 10 times slower than using the classical correlations. The adaptation of the traditional method for predicting delays is interesting, for modeling. because those performances are difficult to obtain simultaneously with Other reduction methods (either purely mathematical, chemical, or even mixed). After a physical and mathematical justification of the proposed formalism, some of its potentialities for n-heptane combustion are presented. In particular, the trends of simulated delays and activation energies are shown for T is an element of [1500 K, 1900 K], P is an element of [10 kPa, 1 MPa] X-Ar is an element of [0, 0, 7], and Phi is an element of [0.25, 4.0]. (C) 2008 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2008Patrick Robert Flückiger, Simon Nessim Henein, Ilan Vardi

The Foucault pendulum provides a demonstration of the turning of the Earth. The principle at work is that linear oscillations of a two-degree-of-freedom isotropic harmonic oscillator remain unchanged in an inertial frame of reference, so appear to precess in a rotating frame of reference. In recent work, we applied two-degree-of-freedom isotropic oscillators to mechanical timekeeping. In this paper, we note that the spherical oscillators we considered have qualitatively different behavior in a non-inertial frame. We show that when in a rotating frame, linear oscillations precess at one half the rotational speed of the rotating frame. We validate this result experimentally by designing and constructing a proof of concept demonstrator placed on a motorized rotating table. The demonstrator consists of a spherical isotropic oscillator, a launcher to place the oscillator on planar orbits, a motorized rotating table, video recording for qualitative observation, and a laser measurement setup for quantitative results. The experimental data recorded by the lasers strongly validate the physical phenomenon.

2020Rasoul Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Mario Paolone

Following an unintended disconnection of a synchronous generator (SG) from the power system, what is also known as a loss of generation (LoG), it is not trivial to precisely estimate the post-event power system's inertia and the LoG size. One of reasons for that is that both of them are a function of the unknown inertia reduction. To solve this challenging problem, this paper presents an analytical method based on the rate-of-change-of-frequency (RoCoF). The method relies on a modified swing equation, allowing a simultaneous estimation of both unknowns. To this end, the values of mechanical starting time, apparent power and loading of lost generator are formulated for the power system under study. In a practical application, the method can use RoCoF measured by phasor measurement units (PMUs). The paper discusses the impact of various frequency estimation approaches to the proposed LoG estimation. Furthermore, a new method for LoG size estimation, based on the interpolated estimated inertial response, is proposed. The efficiency of the proposed approach is validated through extensive simulations with Matlab/Simulink using a simple power system and the IEEE 39-bus test network.

2018