**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Torque

Summary

In physics and mechanics, torque is the rotational analogue of linear force. It is also referred to as the moment of force (also abbreviated to moment). It describes the rate of change of angular momentum that would be imparted to an isolated body.
The concept originated with the studies by Archimedes of the usage of levers, which is reflected in his famous quote: "Give me a lever and a place to stand and I will move the Earth". Just as a linear force is a push or a pull applied to a body, a torque can be thought of as a twist applied to an object with respect to a chosen point. Torque is defined as the product of the magnitude of the perpendicular component of the force and the distance of the line of action of a force from the point around which it is being determined. The law of conservation of energy can also be used to understand torque. The symbol for torque is typically \boldsymbol\tau, the lowercase Greek letter tau. When being referred to as moment of force, i

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related units (6)

Related publications (68)

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related courses (75)

L'objectif de ce cours est d'acquérir les connaissances de base liées aux machines électriques (conversion électromécanique). Le cours porte sur le circuit magnétique, le transformateur, les machines synchrones, asynchrones, à courant continu et les moteurs pas à pas.

L'objectif de ce cours est d'acquérir les connaissances de base liées aux machines électriques (conversion électromécanique). Le cours porte sur le circuit magnétique, le transformateur, les machines synchrones, asynchrones, à courant continu et les moteurs pas à pas.

Ce cours introduit les bases de la mécanique des structures : calcul des contraintes et déformations provoquées par les forces extérieures et calcul des déformations. Ces enseignements théoriques sont appliqués à la conception des éléments importants des mécanismes de précision.

Related people (15)

Related lectures (219)

Related concepts (92)

In physics, a force is an influence that can cause an object to change its velocity, i.e., to accelerate, unless counterbalanced by other forces. The concept of force makes the everyday notion of pus

In physics, work is the energy transferred to or from an object via the application of force along a displacement. In its simplest form, for a constant force aligned with the direction of motion, th

In physics, angular momentum (sometimes called moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum. It is an important physical quantity because it is a conserved

Although used in a very large variety of applications, drilling is one of the most complex and least understood manufacturing processes. Most of the research on drilling was done in the field of metal cutting for mechanical parts since, in this case, high precision and quality are needed. The use of composite materials in engineering applications has increased in recent years, and in many of these applications drilling is one of the most critical stages in the manufacturing process. This is because it is among the last operations in the manufacturing plan of composite parts. Delamination and extensive tool wear are among the problems which drilling of composite materials are currently facing. A major difference between metallic and composite plates is their structure: isotropic for metals and anisotropic for composite materials; meaning that while for metallic materials all the structure will respond in a similar manner under the machining loads, the composite structure will have localized responses from the same loads, leading to defects in the internal structure of the remaining work-piece material (i.e. delamination). Delamination can lead to failure in use and parts with such defects are usually discarded. Delamination is not usually visually detectable and special testing is necessary, affecting the costs of the final parts. Delamination during drilling was found to occur at tool entry (peel-up) or tool exit (push-out) and depends on the loads at inter-laminar level. The work presented in the current thesis focuses in providing reliable information about the thrust and torque distribution along the drill radius (and work-piece thickness) during drilling for varying cutting parameters, drill geometry and work-piece material. Such data should assist in the development of delamination models capable of capturing the influence of the drill geometry and cutting parameters on delamination onset and propagation during both exit and entry of the drill in the work-piece. A cutting force model is proposed to obtain the elementary cutting force distribution along the drill radius which is able to account for changes in axial feed rate and drill geometry. Based on oblique cutting, forces are considered on both rake and relief faces. A generic relationship in the form of a transformation matrix is developed to relate oblique cutting to drilling, valid for any drill geometry. The mathematical description of the drill geometry in the scope of cutting force modeling has been revised. The kinematics of the drilling process is now taken into account for (i) all geometrical parameters of the drill and for (ii) the elementary cutting forces decomposition. Additionally, a new drill type and its geometric features have been described mathematically and the definition of the geometrical parameters has been generalized so that other drills types or variations could be easily implemented into the model. It proved therefore possible to adopt simpler expressions for the empirical force coefficients of the cutting force model. Up to four empirical coefficients are used, which are calculated from experiments for each work-piece material and drill type. Most experimental investigations on drilling fiber reinforced composites analyze only the total thrust and torque generated during drilling or separately the forces caused by the chisel edge and cutting lips by drilling with or without a pilot hole. The later type of analysis suggested that is possible to obtain more detailed information about the distribution of the loads in drilling from the analysis of the forces variation during tool entry into the work-piece. Pursuing this direction, an experimental analysis method is proposed to obtain the axial and tangential elementary cutting force distribution along the tool radius or work-piece thickness. The cutting force distribution obtained experimentally was used to calibrate the cutting force model, rather than the total thrust and torque. The experimentally obtained cutting force distribution can also be used alone for analyzing the drilling process (i.e. the loads distribution among the plies of the composite laminate and how this load is influenced by changes in the drill geometry and the cutting conditions).

In this thesis, we study systems of active particles interacting via generic torques of different nature. We analyze the phase behavior of these systems, which results from the interplay between self-propulsion, excluded-volume and torques.We tackle the problem from two different perspectives. On the one hand, we derive a continuum field theory that describes a system of self-propelled particles subjected to generic torques. At the mean-field level, the linear stability analysis of the field equations unveils different instabilities of the homogeneous and isotropic state, leading to pattern formation and phase separation.On the other hand, we explore the phase diagrams of collections of aligning active Brownian particles by means of numerical simulations. We specifically focus on understanding what happens to motility-induced phase separation in the presence of different types of velocity alignment interactions. We study Vicsek-like alignment rules as well as dipolar interactions, which can be regarded as an alternative way of introducing effective alignment to the system. We extend the numerical simulations to also explore the phase behavior of mixtures of aligning active particles with different motilities. Here, we report a coupling between the fast and slow species, by which the fast species enhances the slow-species' motility. Finally, we address, at a fundamental level, what are the minimal ingredients leading to the emergence of a polarized phase in systems of aligning active particles. To do so, we propose a Hamiltonian model that could admit a transition to collective motion fulfilling the conservation of total linear momentum and derive a suitable algorithm to properly integrate the equations of motion.

A reversed shoulder prosthesis is the general treatment of glenohumeral arthritis and concomitant rotator cuff arthropathy. However, failure due to loosening of the components remains a concern. The purpose of this study was to examine the forces that occur at the screws of the glenoid implant during the fixation process. An experimental setup was developed allowing for measuring both force and torque depending on turn angle for each screw separately. Experiments were performed on artificial bone of two different densities (0.16 g/cm3 and 0.24 g/cm3) and on six human glenoid bones of unknown age and gender. Characteristic graphs could be obtained for every material and each screw position. On average maximal force values were 180 N in lower density foam and 341 N in higher density foam. Corresponding mean peak values for torque were 0.65 Nm and 1.33 Nm, respectively. In the human bone experiments force peak values for the anterior compression screw ranged from 179 N to 317 N, torque values from 0.26 Nm to 2.36 Nm. For the posterior compression screw force peak values ranged from 320 N to 545 N, torque values from 1.35 Nm to 4.66 Nm. Peak values were consistently higher in higher density foam and at the posterior screw position. These results show a high dependency of the occurring screw forces on material density and position within the glenoid and contribute to further research in glenoid implant design optimization.

2008